Лекции бабушки Шмариной...LECTURE 1.
THEME: Introduction into the science of GRAMMAR.
1. The object of Grammar. The property of Grammar.
2. Normative & theoretical Grammar.
3. The basic units of language.
4. Divisions of Grammar.
5. Language & speech.
6. The paradigmatic & syntagmatic relations.
1. It's generally known, that language is a system. First of all, the system of
3 constituent parts: PHONOLOGY, LEXICOLOGY & GRAMMAR.
According to the traditional point of view, phonology & grammar deal with
general categories, such as vowels, consonants, nouns, words, subjects etc. That
means that statements, concerning such phenomena may be related to a whole class
of homogenious things. In other words, such phenomena are of the general
Lexicology, on the contrary, deals with individual units: words( or linguistic
signs).Hence it follows that lexicological statements are of a special
character, for such statements refer to every single unit of the vocabulary.
E.g.: ,,Dog'' - denotes a certain domestic animal, a friend to a man. It's an
individual pet. But if we use the word in the form ,,Dogs"(pl.), it becomes a
general pet; that concerns the great number of other words: tigers, students...
. Each of the above mentioned constituent parts of language is investigated by a
corresponding linguistic discipline.
Phonology is described by the science of phonology.
The lexical description of language is described by lexicology.
Grammar is described by grammar.
No language can exist without vocabulary, but only Grammar gives a human
thought a material linguistic form, thanks to its abstract character. It's a
self-tuning system. Grammar is the result of a long time abstracting work of
human mind. Grammar abstracts itself from the particular & concrete and builds
its rules & laws, taking into consideration only the common features of groups &
words. That's why Grammar is always compared with Geometry. Abstract character
is the 1st characteristic feature of Grammar. Another characteristic feature of
Grammar is Stability, which manifests itself in the fact, that laws & categories
Grammar exist through ages without considerable changes, because Gr. is a
product of many epochs.
2. The main object of Gr. as a science is the grammatical structure of language,
i.e. the system of the laws of word changing & sentence building. The rules of
Grammar govern the ways in which words are joined together to express feelings,
emotions, etc. The Grammar of each language constitutes a system of its own,
each element of which stands in certain relations to other elements.
There are two types of Grammar:
All the rules, according to which, people construct their speech are based on
Normative Grammar is the collection of rules of the given language, which
the students with a manual of practical mastering the Grammar. Thus, Normative
Grammar is of a prescriptive character.
Theoretical Grammar is the branch of linguistics, which studies the forms of the
words & their relations in sentences in more abstract way, giving the profound
description of existing grammatical laws & tendencies. Every theoretical
description presents the studied parts of language in an isolated form, so as to
inside into their structure & expose the mechanisms of their functioning, i.e.
mechanism of the formation of utterances out of words in the process of
The aim of Theoretical Grammar is to present a scientific description of a
certain system of a certain language. Thus, Theoretical Grammar is of a