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The basic units of language & speech are: the phoneme, the morpheme, the
word, the sentence & the supra phrasal unity.
The phoneme is the smallest distinctive unit. That means: if you take two
words--
,,season'' & ,,reason'', you will see, they differ in 1one phoneme formally.
This
phoneme helps you to see, that these two words have different meanings.
The morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit. E.g.: Unhappily.
The word is the smallest nominative unit.
The sentence is the smallest communication unit. The sentence is an utterance,
that pre-supposes the act of speech; the speaker or writer; the listener or
reader;
reality, as viewed by the speaker. In oral speech sentences are marked by
pauses;
in written sp.--- by full stops. In language, the sentence is an abstract
pattern &
in speech, it's a concrete utterance.
The word group or the word combination or a phrase is a naming unit like a word.
But it names not separate things, but some relations between the things.
E.g.: a new car.
The supra phrasal unity is a functional unit of speech, which consists of more
than one sentence, related syntectically & semantically. In oral speech they are

marked by a three unit pause; in written sp.--- by indented lines.
4. Traditionally, the course of Grammar is divided into two parts:
1. Morphology.
2. Syntax.
Morphology originates from the word ,, morpheus'' (the god of dreams). They
thought the god of dreams gave shape to their chaotical visions in sleep.
Morphology deals with forms of words. It includes: parts of speech & their
morphological categories. Morphological categories are represented in word
forms. It studies the system of forms of word change. E.g.: the case & the
number of the noun; person, number, mood of the verb etc.
Syntax includes the sentence & the parts of the sentence; it makes the study
of ways of connection words & word combinations in the sentences.
Morphology & Syntax are two independent parts of Grammar and have their
own objects of study; they're closely connected, for the morphological
characteristics of the word are realized through its syntactical relations with
other words.
On the other hand, the syntactical relations of the word may effect the morpho-
logical characteristics of parts of speech in the course of development of the
grammatical structure of the language. E.g.: substantivisation of adjectives.



LECTURE 2.
(Continuation).
5. The distinctions between language & speech, which were first introduced by
Ferdinant de Saussure, have since become one of the corner stones of Modern
Linguistics.
,, Language is a system''.
It's the phonological, lexical & grammatical system, which lies at the basis of
all speaking. It's the sourse, which every speaker & writer has to draw on if he
wants to be understood by other speakers of the language.
Speech, on the other hand, is the manifestation of language or its practical use
by various speakers & writers of the given language. Thus, what we have before
us in oral or written form as material for analysis is always a product of
speech.
There is no other way for linguists to get to language than through speech.
Language characterizes a certain human community. It's used in the community;
it's understood by all the members of the community; so it's called a social
code. And by its nature, Language is social. Speech, on the contrary, is
individual, but
it's based upon language which exists in the minds of all speaking community.
We can't see language, neither hear it. We can get to it only through speech.
As we're concerned with Grammar only, we don't have to deal with phonological
and lexical parts of language...
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