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Теоретическая грамматика

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We shall only concentrate on the system of
Grammar & its manifestation. Language & Speech are closely connected &
intermingled. They may come a unity. Language is realized through Speech. The
life of language consists in oral & written intercourse within 2 or more people.
This linguistic intercourse is manifested through connected communications
chiefly in the form of sentences, though not always so complete & well-arranged.
The object in teaching Grammar is not only rules, which must be obeyed if one
wants to speak & write the language correctly. It also aims at finding out what
is actually said & written by the speakers of the language.
According to Ferdinant de Saussure: ,, Language is a treasure, formed by way of
speaking practice & preserved in the minds of the people who belong to a certain
speaking community." ,, Язык -- это клад, отлагаемый в памяти всех членoв
данного языкового коллектива."
It's a system of 3 systems (lex., gram., phon.), potentially existing in every
mind & at the same time, in the minds of the whole speaking community, for,
language can't exist wholly in one individual.
6. There're certain relations within the language. They say, the language is a
system of paradigmatic relations. We mean the structure of various means &
the classes they form. E.g.: boy, boys, boy's, boys'.
They are written down with a vertical way. Paradigmatic relations are vertical.
Speech is a system of syntagmatic relations. They're always linear (horizontal).

Syntagmatic chains -- we mean the combinations, the same units form in the
process of communication. E.g.: voice of phoning machine.
Originally, the differentiation between paradigmatics & syntagmatics was based
on recognition of the two linguistic planes:
1. The plane of language.
2. The plane of speech.
Language planes are structured paradigmatically, speech ones - syntagmatically.
It's generally known, that every linguistic unit ends in 2 types of systemic
relations at a time.
If certain units, equal in rank are correlated by means of an opposition (E.g.:
long--longer--longest), we say they have paradigmatic relations, that are
vertical & imply the choice when they're realized in actual speech (E.g.: I'm
not going to stay here any longer.), the element that stands in paradigmatic
relations. But they're substitutable. E.g.: 1). The way to the station is very
2). Which is the longest river in the world
Opposition relations are called associative. Associative groups exist in the
vertical way. If linguistic elements appear in a contrast linear pattern, we say
they have syntagmatic relations. They form a syntagneme, which may comprise:
phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, clauses. Syntagmatic relations can be
observed not only at syntax level, they're not associative, but constructive,
they're based on the linear confrontation of the language units.
Paradigmatic relations, which are typical of language, may be of different
kinds: 1. They may be based on the similarity of the semantic features
(synonymous & antonymous groups). E.g.: nice, pretty...
2. They may be based on the similarity of the formal characteristics of
linguistic elements. Such relations exist between the members of a paradigm,
which consists not of the units, but of those paradigmatic markers, which
distinguish one form of the unit from its other forms. E.g.: go, goes, will go,
has gone.
3. At the level major syntax we may also observe sentence paradigms, which are
called transforms. They are united by a common meaning.
E.g.: The work has been done, we went home. The work done, we went home.
After the work was done, we went home...
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