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between phonemes, words etc. Linearity is the main factor for syntagmatic
relations. Standing together in linear order, linguistic elements can make up a
unity. But linearity is not the only ground, on which all syntagmatic relations
are established. According to the logical approach, the differentiation is made
between the 3 types of syntagmatic relations:
1. Independence. 2. Dependence. 3. Interdependence.
There are: combinational syntagmatic relations, which reveal relatedness of
elements & non-combinational ones.
Combinational syntagmatic relations can be subdivided into:
1. Collocational (lexico-semantic).
2. Colligational (grammatical).
Collocational relations are not of a grammatical character, they're of lexico-
-semantic character; the collocated elements are located together in the same
linear arrangement (,,to speak fluently).
Colligational relations are based on the morphological & syntactical
peculiarities of the word (,,to tell him"; ,,to say nothing").
Non-combinational relations are cohesive. They may be anaphoric & cataphoric.
Non-combinational relations are typical of the syntax of the text, which means
that neither phrases, nor sentences can be formed on the basis of such
They're specifically textual & cohesive. They appear between sentences & supra
phrasal unities. Linearity is not essential for such occasion. The cohesive
relations appear between the elements which are usually in distant positions.
The anaphoric relations show that an element refers to its antecedent in the
left-hand side (retrospective relations).
The cataphoric relations indicate that antecedent is located in the right text
contest (prospective relations).
E.g.: ,, He hated interference especially in his work & beyond everything he
hated interfering women. The more he thought of it, the angrier he became."
1. Aspects of Morphology.
2. The definition of the morpheme.
3. The allo-emic principle.
4. The types of morphemes.
5. Types of word-form derivation.
1. Grammar has two constituent parts: Morphology & Syntax.
Morphology deals with morphological units (the morpheme & the word);
word-forms, which signify some general conceptual notions (grammar. meanings,
grammatical forms, grammatical categories). It also studies the parts of speech.
Morphology has certain branches: one of them is morpho-phonemics, which
describes the phonological representation of meaningful morphemes.
E.g.: morphophonemic vowel interchange in "ring - rang - rung" plays a definite
part in the system of form-building. The vowel interchange in the words "food
-feed is a means of word-building.
Another branch of Morphology - morphemics deals with the description of the
morphological models of the language. In other words, it describes the morpheme
structure, the ways of their location in the units of high level.
2. Even casual comparison of such word form as dogs, boys, with the
corresponding dog, boy, will show that the 1st set may be split into 2
grammatically significant elements (+), which, on the one hand, convey
the meaning, and on the other, cause the certain agreement between the words in
a sentence. Thus, we say: "The dog sleeps in a kennel", but "The dogs sleep in a
kennel. The form "dog" can't be divided into future grammatically significant
elements. Further division may be only phonologically. The described minimal
grammatical units are called morphemes. They are delimited by comparing word
form with one another and by singling out the recurrent pieces that compose
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