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Теоретическая грамматика

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hem. A word may consist of 1 or more morphemes, each morpheme them conveys a
particular lexical or grammatical meaning.
The morpheme - is the smallest meaningful, further indivisible recurrent
component of a word or a word form.
3. If the approach from the point of view of speech, we can observe the
following phenomenon: the morphemes like words may exhibit different forms in
the process of speaking. It depends on their position within the word. E.g.: the
regular formative of the plural number morpheme "s" may be represented in speech
in different ways.
In languageIn speech
[s] - book
- (e)s[z] - boys
[iz] - boxes

Allomorphs are speech variants of morphemes.
At the basis of allo-emic elements lies the division into language and speech.
The term morphemes stands for the whole grammatically relevant class of forms.
They belong to language. It is an abstract entity which expresses particular
grammatical meaning. Em-terms denote generalized invariants of language,
characterized by a certain functional status ( Allo-morphes denote the concrete
manifestation of invariants, of the generalized units, dependent on the regular
colligation with other elements of the language.
Invariants are abstract. The allo-morphs (or variant morphemes ) like [s], [z],
[iz] are phonologically predictable, but we have many examples of allo-morphs ,
which can't be explained by usage of speech criteria. Thus, the English plural
form of the word "ox" - "oxen" is grammatically parallel to "dogs". "En" is an
irregular form of the plural number. There are other irregular forms:
"children", "geese". Professor Robins considered them to be allo-morphs of the
plural number morphemes. According to the tradition, which goes back to Panini
Grammar, such specific forms as......... are considered by linguists as having
any form (0 form ) of plural number.

There is another group of words which have a specific morphemic structure:
E.g.:"man - men", "tooth - teeth". The plural forming morpheme is represented
not by any recurrent formative like [s], but a process of root vowel
interchange. E.g.: [ж] - [e] etc.
We are dealing here with infix morphemes. Such word forms are rarely survivals
of the specific morphemic structure of Old English. To simplify the complicated
system of analysis, professor Ilysh V.A. and others refer all the speech
exhibits of the plural number morphemes to the allo-morphs of the plural number
morphemes, which graphically may be depicted as following:
Language Speech
plural number morphemes [s], [z], [iz], [ш], [ж]--[e], [f]--[vz],[u]--[i].
The analysis and classification of different phonological forms in which
morphemes appear, both in individual languages and in languages in general is
called Morphonology, which is the same as morphophonemics. When discussing the
different forms of the English plural number morphemes we applied the
morphophonological analysis.
4. There are two criteria in classifying morphemes:
1). Positional
2). Functinal (semantic).
According to positional criterion morphemes are divided into: root morphemes and
affixal morphemes (affixes,prefixes, infixes, suffixes). In other words, root
morphemes are called free morphemes, while affixal are bound morphemes. A free
morpheme is vand . a bound morpheme is one, that must appear with at least one
other morpheme, bound or free. E.g.: "work"+"ed".
Root morphemes are unlimited in number. Affixes are bound morphemes, they are
limited in number, and may be exhaustedly elisted. Some words have more than one
morpheme, they are compound words. E.g.: " bird-cherry ", "scare-crow". In
English the majority of roots are free...
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