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But nevertheless there are bound root
morphemes. They are the following.
E.g.: receive, conceive
retain, contain
transfer, refer.
Affix is a term denoting recurrent formative morphemes, other than roots.
From the point of view of formal presentation we distinguish: overt [ouvit] and
covert [kA vit]. Overt morphemes are represented explicitly: "retell", "asked";
covert morphemes coincide with 0(zero morpheme). Every morpheme is the smallest
meaningful unit, thus "ed" conveys the morpheme of Past tense. We should
differentiate form-building morphemes (that are grammatical) and word-building
morphemes (they are lexical).
E.g.: movement , outline - word-building morphemes
asked, asks, getting - form-building morphemes
5. Form-building morpheme is called word changing. Modern English extremely poor
according to the word-changing, but there are some.
1). Affixation.
It is the use of epithets. E.g.: "bus" - "buses".
Only Suffixation is used in modern English. Prefixation was productive in old
English period. For the formation of perfect participle
2). Sound Interchange.
Vowel interchange Consonant interchange
3). Supplative forms
"bad" - "worse" - "worst"
"go" - "went" - "gone"
"be", "is", "are", "am" - "was", "were" - "been".
All of 1), 2), 3) - belong to the syntactic way of form-building.
4). Analytical forms are particular word-combinations, made up of an auxiliary
a notional word.
Analytical forms are very productive in modern English
Grammar deals with form-building .
have................................................en frames
continuous morphemes
The matter is, that the analytical (can be put) consist of two
meaningful morphemes. Analytical morphemes are not free word combination like "a
red rose", neither are phraseological units like " red tape"(burocracy).
Analytical forms can't be compared with words, they are word forms like
synthetic forms, performing a definite grammatical function.
The word
1. The definition of the word.
2. The characteristic features of the word.
3. The two planes of the word.
The word is the main object of lexicology as well. It is not easy to give
rigorous definition of the word. Since it is very complex and many sided
phenomenon. The term "word" denotes the basic unit of a given language,
resulting from the associations of a particular meaning with the particular
group of sounds, capable of the particular grammatical employment. Arnold, "The
English word".
This working definition of the word implies that the word is simultaneously
a semantical and grammatical unit. There are many definitions of the word and
none of them are generally accepted. The word is considered to be the minimal
potential sentence, the minimal free linguistic form, the elementary component
of the sentence, the sound symbol, the meaningfully integral and immediately
identifiable unit.
The difficulty in defining the word compel some linguists to exclude the word
from the basic unit of the language. L. Bloomfield school in US. That school
linguists consider the morpheme and the phoneme to be the basic units of
linguistic description, for the phoneme can be easily isolated from the context
thanks to its minimal elementary segmental character. They consider the phoneme
to be the minimal formal segment of language and the morpheme to be the ultimate
meaningful segment. The main drawback of descriptive linguistics is that they
approach the definition of the linguistic units on a formal basis...
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