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Теоретическая грамматика

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The other
linguists came to the conclusion, that such units must be defined by taking into
consideration their formal and functional (semantic) features.
2. In actual speech people experience no difficulty in separating one word from
another. Traditionally, linguists point out isolatebility as the most
characteristic features of the word. One word can form a sentence ("Fire!",
"Thanks!",...). Another characteristic feature of the word is its
uninterruptibility or indivisibility. Even if you take compound words, such as
"blackberry", "blue-eyed", you won't be able to insert another word in the
middle of this compound word. Third feature is a certain looseness in the
sentence, i.e. that you may place the word in different parts of the sentence.
E.g.: "The bat flew down."="Down flew the bat."
But still, don't forget, that the English word-order is rigid unlike the Russian
word order. Russian language is a highly developed morphological system. The set
looseness is marked in writing by the graphic form of the word with certain
spaces between the words.
In oral speech, every word is separated from its neighbours by one unit pause.
Some difficulty is paused by the application of the term "word". Some linguists
regard such group of words as work, worked, is working as one word. The whole
group can't be used as a unit of speech, for the unit must belong both to
language & speech. Of all the group, only the element "work" can be regarded as
an objective unit of the language. All the grammeme are called lexeme.
"A lexeme is a group of word forms, united by the common lexical meaning, but
having different grammatical meaning."
If we take a group of words, united by the common grammatical meaning, we shall
get a grammeme.
E.g.: sleeps, reads, tries, fucks - Grammeme.
A number of elements of the lexeme may vary from 1 ("must") to many.
E.g.: The lexeme, represented by the word "wright" Þ contains Þ 94 elements,
expressed by 64 forms.
The number of words in a grammeme is practically limitless. But the gammeme
having the meaning only Past tense, indicative mood, plural number, not perfect,
not continuos aspects, contains only 1 word : were .
The word is a nominative ( naming ) unit of language .It enters the vocabulary
as its elementary component indivisible into smaller segments.
The word is used for the formation of the sentence.
The word is the basic unit of the language , which occupies the key position in
the language. It's universal in its character. It is capable of performing any
function in the language : nominative, significant, communicative & pragmatic.
The functional sphere of the word is very wide. It may represent a morpheme (
free place ), a nominative sign ( desk ), A part of a word group ( a big fire )
& a sentence ( Fire! ).
3. A word is a linguistic sing. A linguistic sign is a bilateral entity, having
it a content & formal side, which correlates with the concept & may indirectly
reflect the objects & phenomena of objective reality ( extralinguistic reality
Not all the linguistic signs have reference to the outer world. Being a
bilateral linguistic sign, the word is characterized by
2 planes :
The plane of content
The plane of expression.
bombthe plan of expression
Mthe plane of content

The first & the second are the dialectical unity of form and content.
In the plane of expression, the word has its material representation.
In oral speech it is represented acoustically by a group of sounds, in written
speech - graphically.
The plane of content includes the lexical meaning of word...
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