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II.
No grammatical category can be represented by all the word forms of the word. If
some grammatical meaning is inherent in all the word forms of the given word, we
shall deal here not with a grammatical category but with lexico-grammatical
category.
Such is the Category of Gender in Russian. We can't change the noun according to
the category of Gender, i.e. masculine, feminine, neuter.
The set meanings of Gender are inherent in certain nouns. Some nouns belong to
masculine gender, other - to feminine, and still other - neuter.
E.g. : дом, улица, небо
III.
One word form may combine different grammatical categories.
E.g. : the form " speaks " combines 5 categories ( grammatical meanings ) -
tense, 3rd person, singular number, indicative mood, active voice.
IV.
No word form can combine 2 categorial meanings ( grammatical meaning of the same
category ) of 1 and the same category. You can not find singular and plural in
one word form simultaneously.
E.g. : boys , boy
V.
Every word form must represent at least one categorial form or belong to some
grammatical category. There are no word forms without grammatical categories.
In modern linguistics, it's generally accepted, that a grammatical category is
represented by an opposeme of, at least, 2 forms. It follows from the theory
workedout by linguist Nicolas Treubetskoy about binary opposition in
Linguistics. He applied the opinion to phonology, but lateron he thought, that
this method works very well in other spheres of Linguistics.
Different parts of speech have different N. Of grammatical categories.
E.g. : the English verb is the most developed system from point of view of
categories. Some think the verb has 6 grammatical categories, others ð 8
grammatical categories.
Tense
Person
Number
Mood
Voice
Aspect
Taxes
English noun has 2 categories ( number, case ).
Adjective ð degree of comparison.


LECTURE N6.
3. Charles Friese's theory of the classes of words.
Every language contains of words. When describing them, we should analize
whether one word separately or unite them into classes possessing more or less
common features.
Linguists make use of both the approaches. A dictionary usually describes
individual words. Grammar mostly deals with clases of words, traditionaly called
parts of speech. The term " part of speech " is conventional. The well-known
linguist Shcherba Z.V., Professor Smirnitsky prefer to use lexico-grammatical
categories "; Professor Blokh operates with the term " grammatical classes of
words "; Charles Fries calls the same thing " positional classes "; Professor
Ilyish, the linguists Heimovich & Rogovskaya speak about
" lexico-grammatical classes of word ". Up to this day, there's no
generalagreement among the grammarians as to the number of the parts of speech,
especially contraversial is the problem of delimiting parts of speech оn the
basis of some common principles.
The 1st to introduce words into classes was Aristotle, who lived in between 384
- 322 B.C. Being a founder of logic Aristotle equated the relation of ideas in
human mind with the relation of word in speech and established grammatical
categories in terms of logic. He introduced in Grammar the notion of " subject "
and "predicate ". His criterion for descriminating between parts of was the
ability of words to express the parts oflogical proposition, i.e. the subject,
the predicate and the copula.
Accordingly, Aristotle established 3 parts of speech : the name, the verb and
the conjunction. By the " name " he meant the word which can perform the
function of the subject. The " verb " represented the predicate...
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