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And by the
conjunction he denoted all the functional words, such as prepositions, articles,
conjunctions, particles.
Aristotle teaching was later continued by other scholars.
Still the confusion of Grammar with the categories of logic remained.
2.In the history of the part of speech there have been different criteria,
according to which the part of speech have been singled out.
Fortunatov concidered the parts of speech to be the formalgrammatical classes.
His classification was purely morphological. He divided all the words into
changeble and unchangeble. To the first group he refered noun, verb, adjective.
Others were unchangeble.
Shakhmatove's classification followed the syntactical principle. It proved to be
The principles , оn which classifications are usually based nowadays , are 3 in
number :

The meaning of the words, belonging to the class of the noun. The abstract
meaning has thingness ( or substance ). The meaning of thingness applies to the
meaning of the noun and constitutes the meaning of the noun as part of speech.
Similarly , the meaning of the verb as a part of speech is action or process.
The general meaning of a part of speech is neither lexical nor grammatical, but
it is connected with both and we call it lexico-grammatical meaning.
In the classical theory of the part of speech a semantic feature was a leading
criteria in establishing a part of speech. In the structural linguistics
(Ferdinand de Sausur ) the semantic principle was ignored ( Charles Fries ).
There were Friese's supporters in Soviet Linguistics as well ( Leontyev, Shapkin
etc. ). Their delimiting the classes of words.
Besides, the words of different parts of speech are distinguished through their
morphological features, their forms, their morphemes. The second principle of
delimiting parts of speech is of form.
Grammatical forms represented grammatical categories. Thus, the noun is
characterized by the categories of number and case; the verb - by the categories
of tense, mood, voice, aspect, person and number.
By function we mean the syntectical properties of a certain class of words, what
part it plays in the sentence.
The noun is usually preceded by adjective, prepositions, pronouns, articles and
is followed by the verb. We call it combinability.
The most convenient for us is the classification of part of speech, proposed by
Khaimovich and Rogovskaya.
According to them, we single out a certain class of words. We must take into
consideration the following principles of this classification :
Its lexical-grammatical meaning.
Its morphological features :
its form-building
its word-building
Its function in the sentence.
In accordance with these principles, the following parts of speech are
distinguished in Modern English:
1). Nouns; 2). Adjectives; 3). Pronouns; 4). Numerals; 5). Verbs; 6). Adverbs;
7). Adlinks(the category of state); 8). Modal words(perhaps, of course,
certainly, evidently, etc.); 9). Prepositions; 10). Conjunctions; 11).
12). Interjections; 13). Articles; 14). Response words.
3. Charles Fries was a representative of the American Descriptive school. He
applied only 1 principle in delimiting parts of speech - the principle of
function. His classes of words can be hardly called parts of speech. He calls
them "positional classes" that are established by the methods of distribution &
substitution. His principle is synthetical. According to him, the speaker gets
sygnals of common classes of word from the position, the word occupies in the
sentence. The meaning of the word being unnecessary.
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